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DeGale to defend title against Farias

first_imgPablo Farias of Argentina has been named as James DeGale’s opponent for his fight at Glow, Bluewater, on Saturday 23 March.DeGale will defend his WBC Silver belt at the Kent venue, where he beat Frenchman Hadillah Mohoumadi last year.It will be the Harlesden super-middleweight’s first outing since a points victory over rugged Colombian Fulgencio Zuniga in December.DeGale, who recently opted to give up the European title and was previously British champion, is hoping to fight for a world title later this year.Farias, 25, has been beaten only twice in his 26 professional fights.One of those defeats was by disqualification and the came against world champion Arthur Abraham.See also:DeGale opts to give up European titleDeGale set for March title defence’This will be my year’ declares DeGale ahead of Farias 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 Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebooklast_img read more


December 21, 2019 0

Can Gene Duplication Promote Evolution?

first_imgImagine you had no mouth but needed to eat.  A hamburger comes flying at you.  When it hits your body, your skin folds around it and pinches off, sealing it inside.  Dozens of 3-armed parts form a geodesic dome around it and carry it to the stomach.  Once delivered, all the parts are recycled for the incoming freedom fries.    If this sounds bizarre, it’s kind of what really happens in your cells.  Except for specialized channels that accept particular molecules, like water (12/20/2001 and salt (01/17/2002), a cell has no mouth; it is surrounded by a continuous membrane.  When large nutrients need to get in, the membrane has acceptors on the outside that signal a cascade of events.  The membrane dents inward and envelops the particle.  On the inside, proteins called clathrins form a geodesic structure around the incoming vesicle as the membrane pinches off and seals the contents inside.  Other proteins and enzymes stand at the ready to deliver the nutrient where needed.  This process goes on continually and is called endocytosis.  A press release from the University of Queensland says the cell eats its entire skin every 30 minutes.    Progress continues to be made understanding clathrin-mediated endocytosis since our 10/07/2003 entry, but the evolutionary origin of this elegant system seems illusory.  UC and Stanford biochemists writing in PNAS1 noted that two forms of clathrin are so different, being coded by different genes, they must have had separate evolutionary histories.  They propose this happened during gene duplication events up to 600 million years ago.    Andreas Wagner, however, publishing in Molecular Biology and Evolution,2 casts doubt on that method of evolutionary change:I here estimate the energy cost of changes in gene expression for several thousand genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  A doubling of gene expression, as it occurs in a gene duplication event, is significantly selected against for all genes for which expression data is available.  It carries a median selective disadvantage of s > 10�5, several times greater than the selection coefficient s = 1.47 x 10�7 below which genetic drift dominates a mutant’s fate.  When considered separately, increases in messenger RNA expression or protein expression by more than a factor 2 also have significant energy costs for most genes.  This means that the evolution of transcription and translation rates is not an evolutionarily neutral process.  They are under active selection opposing them.  My estimates are based on genome-scale information of gene expression in the yeast S. cerevisiae as well as information on the energy cost of biosynthesizing amino acids and nucleotides.   (Emphasis added in all quotes.)Whatever the origin of clathrin, its reputation as a versatile molecule is growing.  In the April 28 issue of Nature,3 three Cambridge biologists wondered what it does when endocytosis is halted during cell division.  They discovered that clathrin has another essential job:Clathrin has an established function in the generation of vesicles that transfer membrane and proteins around the cell.  The formation of clathrin-coated vesicles occurs continuously in non-dividing cells, but is shut down during mitosis, when clathrin concentrates at the spindle apparatus.  Here, we show that clathrin stabilizes fibres of the mitotic spindle to aid congression of chromosomes.  Clathrin bound to the spindle directly by the amino-terminal domain of clathrin heavy chain.  Depletion of clathrin heavy chain using RNA interference prolonged mitosis; kinetochore fibres were destabilized, leading to defective congression of chromosomes to the metaphase plate and persistent activation of the spindle checkpoint.  Normal mitosis was rescued by clathrin triskelia [complete 3-part clathrin proteins] but not the N-terminal domain of clathrin heavy chain, indicating that stabilization of kinetochore fibres was dependent on the unique structure of clathrin.This is not just an incidental task for clathrin to do till cell division is over.  “The importance of clathrin for normal mitosis,” they say, “may be relevant to understanding human cancers that involve gene fusions of clathrin heavy chain.”1Wakeham et al., “Clathrin heavy and light chain isoforms originated by independent mechanisms of gene duplication during chordate evolution,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0502058102, published online before print May 9, 2005.2Andreas Wagner, “Energy Constraints on the Evolution of Gene Expression,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2005 22(6):1365-1374; doi:10.1093/molbev/msi126.3Royle et al., “Clathrin is required for the function of the mitotic spindle,” Nature 434, 1152-1157 (28 April 2005) | doi: 10.1038/nature03502.Gene duplication is one of the mechanisms Darwinists invoke when Natural Selection seems inadequate for a job, and they want to make it seem like there are other tricks in the toolkit of Charlie the Magician.  The abstract of Wagner’s paper seems to make it clear that duplication is not going to help.  If two tools are fighting each other, like front and rear tires spinning in opposite directions, the vehicle is not going anywhere.  Now go back and reread the 10/07/2003 entry about endocytosis and see if you think the Darwin Party has a prayer for explaining it.  Be sure to watch Allison Bruce’s cool video of clathrin making geodesic domes.  How many of you would vote for chance and natural selection producing this geometrical marvel?  Someone other than a Darwinist, who not only has a prayer but a Recipient, should get a hearing.(Visited 14 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more


December 19, 2019 0

Gallery: The magic of Mpumalanga

first_imgLying in the east of South Africa, Mpumalanga is known for its stunning natural beauty, great mountain peaks and deep valleys, and game reserves stocked with Africa’s Big Five – elephant, lion, rhino, leopard and buffalo.A female lion shows her teeth at the upmarket Nkomazi Game Reserve, a 150 000-hectare game farm on the banks of the Komati River. (Ryan Kilpatrick, CC BY-ND 2.0, via Flickr)Compiled by Mary AlexanderIt’s September. It’s spring in South Africa – and Tourism Month, celebrated this year with the theme “Tourism for All”. To inspire your next road trip we bring you nine galleries, one for each province, showcasing our country’s remarkable beauty and diversity.A thriving tourism industry means South Africa is closer to achieving its National Development Plan goals of skills development and creating decent employment through inclusive economic growth.Mpumalanga means “the place where the sun rises” in Nguni languages. It’s a landlocked province far from the sea, but ribbed with some of South Africa’s great rivers, such as the Sabie, Blyde and Olifants. Over millions of years these have carved out a dramatic landscape that includes the world’s largest green canyon. The lush subtropical Blyde River Canyon runs for 25 kilometres and plunges to depths of over a kilometre.It’s the place to spot wildlife, get the adrenaline going on treetop tours and white water rapids, and explore the past in quaint old mining towns such as Pilgrim’s Rest.The Blyde River Canyon in Mpumalanga is one of the great natural wonders of Africa. It is the third-largest canyon on earth, after the Grand Canyon in the US and the Fish River Canyon in Namibia. But its subtropical vegetation, teeming with abundant birdlife and wildlife, makes it the largest green canyon on the planet. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)A Ndebele woman in traditional dress stands in a homestead decorated with the vibrant geometric designs of the Ndebele people, in a cultural village tourism development in Mpumalanga. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Formed by thousands of years of turbulent water flowing into the confluence of the Treur and Blyde rivers, Bourke’s Luck Potholes are gorgeous sandstone formations – also known as “giant’s kettles” – that seem more art than nature. (Image: Rudi von Staden, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Flickr)God’s Window, one of the most spectacular viewpoints on earth, where the escarpment of the Mpumalanga highveld meets the lowveld. (Image: Aquila, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Flickr)A herd of white rhino crowd the road in the southern Kruger National Park. South Africa’s flagship reserve runs across two of the country’s provinces: Mpumlanaga in the south and Limpopo in the north. (Image: Michael Janse, CC BY-ND 2.0, via Flickr)The sun rises over the bushveld in the Kruger National Park. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Craftwork jewellery for sale at a Ndebele cultural village – a showcase of Ndebele culture for tourists – in Mpumalanga. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Tubing on the Blyde River. Adventure tourism is one of Mpumalanga’s most popular attractions. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)A bull elephant near Satara rest camp in the Kruger National Park. (Image: Eric Gropp, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)The old post office in Pilgrim’s Rest, a historic mining village established during the gold rush of the 1800s. Today the entire village is a national monument, and a major tourist attraction alone Mpumalanga’s Panorama Route. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)The Mbombela Stadium outside Nelspruit – Mpumalanga’s capital city – was built to host games for the 2010 Fifa World Cup. Its support struts were designed to evoke giraffes silhouetted against the sky. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)On the road to the Kruger National Park, the sun breaks through the clouds to illuminate a dramatic Mpumalanga bushveld landscape. (Image: André van Rooyen, CC BY-NC-SA, via Flickr)Kruger Mpumalanga International Airport outside Nelspruit allows global travellers to fly directly to the Kruger National Park. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)A leopard climbs a tree to escape an angry herd of buffalo, in the Kruger National Park. Wildlife Tourists can spot The Big Five species in the park, including leopard, buffalo, elephant, lion and rhino. (Image: Chris Eason, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)The 70-metre Lone Creek Falls are another breathtaking natural attraction on Mpumalanga’s Panorama Route. Set in pristine indigenous forest, the falls have been declared a national monument. (Image: Pedro Alberquerque, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)A woman sells crafts to tourists in the town of Graskop, a stop-off point on Mpumalanga’s Panorama Route near God’s Window and the Pinnacle Rock. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)A view above the clouds at God’s Window. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)last_img read more


December 18, 2019 0