Category: upgypqbj

Chrysalis is looking for merger deal

first_img whatsapp KCS-content whatsapp Monday 1 November 2010 7:27 pm JULIAN CULHANE JEFFERIESADVISING on the deal is investment bank Jefferies. Heading up the team is Julian Culhane, Managing Director in M&A Investment Banking. He has held the position since 2007. He joined from LongAcre Partners, where he was one of three founding partners who grew the firm into a leading media corporate finance advisory firm before its acquisition by Jefferies. Prior to this he was chief financial officer at lastminute.com. Chrysalis is looking for merger deal center_img Share Show Comments ▼ More From Our Partners Killer drone ‘hunted down a human target’ without being told tonypost.comBrave 7-Year-old Boy Swims an Hour to Rescue His Dad and Little Sistergoodnewsnetwork.orgFlorida woman allegedly crashes children’s birthday party, rapes teennypost.comPolice Capture Elusive Tiger Poacher After 20 Years of Pursuing the Huntergoodnewsnetwork.org980-foot skyscraper sways in China, prompting panic and evacuationsnypost.comSupermodel Anne Vyalitsyna claims income drop, pushes for child supportnypost.comBill Gates reportedly hoped Jeffrey Epstein would help him win a Nobelnypost.comConnecticut man dies after crashing Harley into live bearnypost.comInside Ashton Kutcher and Mila Kunis’ not-so-average farmhouse estatenypost.comI blew off Adam Sandler 22 years ago — and it’s my biggest regretnypost.comRussell Wilson, AOC among many voicing support for Naomi Osakacbsnews.comFeds seized 18 devices from Rudy Giuliani and his employees in April raidnypost.comA ProPublica investigation has caused outrage in the U.S. this weekvaluewalk.comMatt Gaetz swindled by ‘malicious actors’ in $155K boat sale boondogglenypost.comNative American Tribe Gets Back Sacred Island Taken 160 Years Agogoodnewsnetwork.orgMark Eaton, former NBA All-Star, dead at 64nypost.comAstounding Fossil Discovery in California After Man Looks Closelygoodnewsnetwork.orgBiden received funds from top Russia lobbyist before Nord Stream 2 giveawaynypost.com Independent music firm Chrysalis yesterday made public its intention to find a buyer, pushing its shares up by more than 20 per cent.The company, which owns tracks by artists including Michael Jackson and David Bowie, is also considering merging its operations with a another firm.A company spokesman admitted the firm is “in early stage discussions with a number of parties regarding merger opportunities”.He said the talks are at a “very preliminary stage” and added “there can be no certainty that an offer will be made or the terms on which any offer would be made.”The firm has hired Jefferies to advise it the sale deal. The music ownership firm, which has a market cap of £74m, declined to name who it has been in talks with.Earlier this year Chrysalis said it expects to grow its royalties in 2011 as it continues to build on a robust year so far­­­.With a promising autumn/winter release schedule, it says it is set to benefit from albums by Rumer, Fleet Foxes and White Lies and gain from contributions by its writers to albums by Kylie Minogue, Tom Jones and Robbie Williams. Tags: NULLlast_img read more


September 4, 2021 0

Ecobank Transnational Incorporation (ETI.gh) HY2012 Interim Report

first_imgEcobank Transnational Incorporation (ETI.gh) listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange under the Banking sector has released it’s 2012 interim results for the half year.For more information about Ecobank Transnational Incorporation (ETI.gh) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Ecobank Transnational Incorporation (ETI.gh) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Ecobank Transnational Incorporation (ETI.gh)  2012 interim results for the half year.Company ProfileEcobank Transnational Incorporation is a financial services institution offering retail, wholesale, investment and transactional banking services to government departments, financial institutions, multi-nationals, small- to medium-size enterprises, micro businesses and individuals in Africa and internationally. The banking group operates in the domestic, corporate and investment banking segments. Ecobank Transnational Incorporated offers a full-service product offering which ranges from current and savings accounts to business accounts and term deposits. Ecobank Transnational Incorporated also provides services for institutional banking; ranging from treasury and investment banking to commodity/trade finance, debt issuance and equity offerings, mergers and acquisitions and syndicated lending. The financial institution operates a network of approximately 1 200 branches and offices in the major towns and cities of Ghana. Its head office is in Lomé, Togo. Ecobank Transnational Incorporation is listed on the Ghana Stock Exchangelast_img read more


July 12, 2021 0

Have £3,000? Here are 3 stocks I’d buy for my ISA as lockdown lifts

first_img Paul Summers has no position in any of the shares mentioned. The Motley Fool UK has recommended Associated British Foods. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. Paul Summers | Sunday, 31st May, 2020 | More on: ABF HFD JD See all posts by Paul Summers Have £3,000? Here are 3 stocks I’d buy for my ISA as lockdown lifts “This Stock Could Be Like Buying Amazon in 1997” Click here to claim your copy now — and we’ll tell you the name of this Top US Share… free of charge! I’m sure you’ll agree that’s quite the statement from Motley Fool Co-Founder Tom Gardner.But since our US analyst team first recommended shares in this unique tech stock back in 2016, the value has soared.What’s more, we firmly believe there’s still plenty of upside in its future. In fact, even throughout the current coronavirus crisis, its performance has been beating Wall St expectations.And right now, we’re giving you a chance to discover exactly what has got our analysts all fired up about this niche industry phenomenon, in our FREE special report, A Top US Share From The Motley Fool.center_img Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares The market has unsurprisingly welcomed the news that lockdown restrictions are to be slowly lifted over the next few weeks. Arguably the most important detail, as far as the economy is concerned, is the re-opening of all non-essential shops by 15 June. With this in mind, here are three potentially great ISA buys that might do better than most in the new retail environment.Cheap ISA buy?The fact that shops are being allowed to reopen does not mean that consumers will be in the mood to spend like there’s no tomorrow, of course. They may, however, feel the need to replace some of their more comfortable ‘lockdown clothing’.5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…For me, this could be good news for Primark-owner Associated British Foods (LSE: ABF). Say what you like about the wares sold by this company — the fact that you can fill a wardrobe on the cheap could mean it does better than most during a recession.Another attraction to ABF is that it isn’t solely dependent on the success of its stores — it has its fingers in the grocery, agriculture, sugar, and ingredients markets. This makes it a good ISA option for defensive-minded investors, in my opinion.True, the shares haven’t done particularly well over the last few years, but consumers’ desire to find value for money in tough times could mark a change in direction. If we assume that analyst predictions on earnings in FY21 are still roughly correct, the stock also changes hands at a really-rather-decent valuation of 14 times earnings. Quality operatorMy second pick of retailers would be FTSE 100 sports and casualwear firm JD Sports (LSE: JD). Boasting excellent free cash flow and experienced management, this business looks set to go from strength to strength. Having established itself as a go-to destination for trainer lovers in the UK, it’s now targeting large overseas markets such as the US.Is a lot of this already priced-in to the shares? Quite probably. Like many stocks, the optimum time to buy was a couple of months ago. From mid-February to mid-March, JD lost two-thirds of its value. The share price has more than doubled since.  Hindsight is a wonderful thing, of course. Nevertheless, JD is one of only a handful of FTSE 100 stocks I’d feel comfortable holding within an ISA for the very long term. And companies like this rarely stay cheap for long.  Riding highMy third and final selection is something of a wildcard: bicycle-seller and auto parts retailer Halfords (LSE: HFD).I’ve actually been very bearish on this company in the past, partly due to its lack of an economic moat. But the coronavirus pandemic has altered my stance somewhat. In case you haven’t noticed, cycling has been hugely popular over recent months as long-distance travel has been prohibited. To be clear, I don’t think Halfords is a ‘buy-and-forget’ stock. There’s no guarantee that those who say they now plan to ride to work rather than catch public transport will actually do so. There’s also quite a bit of debt on the balance sheet.Even so, the next set of numbers released by the company is likely to be very good indeed. Those buying a small amount now for their tax-efficient ISA could still do well.  Image sources: Getty Images. Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. Enter Your Email Address I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement.last_img read more


July 5, 2021 0

Wildlife Trusts choose Access thankQ CRM

first_img About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Wildlife Trusts choose Access thankQ CRM The Wildlife Trusts, an organisation of 47 charities that protect nature, has selected Access thankQ for it customer relationship management (CRM) activities.The charity’s staff were aware that its existing systems were “fragmented and ageing”, according to Tim Middlecote, the organisation’s Head of ICT. Some of the systems providing limited functionality, and others even acted as barriers to fundraising and engagement.A new, standard CRM had to meet the needs of the organisation itself and serve its role within a federated organisation. In addition, it needed to offer effective querying tools, so that users at each of the trusts could access the data they required, and thereby reduce the need for external support and service providers.Having selected Access thankQ CRM, each of the Wildlife Trusts’ 47 member trusts will now benefit from access to a standardised and centralised system. Advertisement  130 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis12 Howard Lake | 6 September 2016 | News  129 total views,  1 views today Tagged with: Access Group Charity CRM AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis12last_img read more


June 16, 2021 0

Black workers resist union-busting Boston gentrifier

first_imgA June 16 action for eight laid-off workers — organized just four days after the announcement they had been fired — drew about 100 people. They were protesting at their place of work, College Bound Dorchester/Boston Uncornered, on a quiet residential street on the Tuesday morning.With these latest layoffs, CEO Mark Culliton targeted one-third of the remaining youth services employees working for his company, College Bound, after workers declared their intention to unionize as Uncornered United-Service Employees (SEIU) Local 888 on June 2. College Bound is a “further education” preparation program, while Boston Uncornered hires neighborhood leaders impacted by violence to be mentors in the program. The company website advertises the programs as “opportunities to turn away from the ‘street corners’ for good.”The UU mentors are Black and Brown neighborhood leaders who have demonstrated social influence and skill at developing young people by drawing on their own challenges and experiences. These workers are demanding that Culliton recognize the union and that he reinstate those illegally fired in retaliation for organizing. Uncornered United’s Facebook page asks supporters to sign and share a petition and contact Culliton supporting their demands.As workers spoke out at the June 16 rally, they described a quintessentially capitalist story of structural racism and gentrification. Technology instructor Joe Taché explained that Culliton reduced his company from 94 workers to fewer than 25 in a decade: “At the same time, in 2010, Culliton’s salary was $140,000 and now it’s $185,000 … a raise of $45,000. That’s more than any of us make in a year!” Taché noted that in 2020 Culliton probably made even more.Another worker pointed out that big banks and corporations oppress workers — and so do nonprofit entrepreneurs. Workers detailed how Culliton exploits and disrespects them, maximizing donations by publicly narrating selected painful details from their personal stories without consent, then excluding them from decision making.Culliton, a white graduate of the University of Michigan with a Yale MBA,  calls himself “the vision behind the solution,” highlighting his school-privatization credentials on the company website. His biography suggests Black and Brown trauma is a profitable problem for him.Meanwhile, the company’s advisors, instructors and mentors, on call 24/7 for their youth clients, earn between $30,000 and $40,000 — an unlivable wage in the hyper-expensive Boston area.Just three days before the layoffs, Culliton raised $650,000, evidence that his motivation in the firings was retaliation, not response to the recession. He had certainly removed workplace activists in the past.At the close of the rally, workers marched to Culliton’s fancy house — presumably valued above a million dollars in a rapidly gentrifying neighborhood where once multiple working-class families were crammed into triple-decker housing.Protesters blocked midday traffic, chanted and leafletted essential workers of color in the streets, receiving a friendly reception. As they attached flyers to Culliton’s door, workers loudly appealed to his neighbors — home because of the pandemic — to help Culliton see the light. They also announced that they encourage people anywhere in the world to give him a call and support the workers’ struggle.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more


June 15, 2021 0

Lawmaker Calls for Further Examination of Servicers in 2013 Foreclosure Settlement

first_img Tagged with: 2013 Independent Foreclosure Review Citigroup Settlements Sign up for DS News Daily Lawmaker Calls for Further Examination of Servicers in 2013 Foreclosure Settlement About Author: Brian Honea March 20, 2015 1,001 Views Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago  Print This Post Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Brian Honea’s writing and editing career spans nearly two decades across many forms of media. He served as sports editor for two suburban newspaper chains in the DFW area and has freelanced for such publications as the Yahoo! Contributor Network, Dallas Home Improvement magazine, and the Dallas Morning News. He has written four non-fiction sports books, the latest of which, The Life of Coach Chuck Curtis, was published by the TCU Press in December 2014. A lifelong Texan, Brian received his master’s degree from Amberton University in Garland. The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago 2013 Independent Foreclosure Review Citigroup Settlements 2015-03-20 Brian Honea U.S. Representative Maxine Waters (D-California) has written a letter to the inspectors general for both the Federal Reserve and the U.S. Department of Treasury asking for further investigation to determine if any of a group of mortgage servicers missed paying additional borrowers that were owed compensation as part of a 2013 foreclosure settlement.The letter was prompted by news reports that surfaced earlier this month stating that Citigroup, one of the servicers named in the settlement, had missed paying some 24,000 borrowers who were owed money from the settlement. Waters, the Ranking Member of the House Committee on Financial Services, sent her letter on Friday to Fed Inspector General Mark Bialek and Treasury Inspector General Eric Thorson asking them to perform further examinations to see if other borrowers were missed. The original settlement was reached more than two years ago between 15 mortgage servicers and the Fed and Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) to resolve claims of servicing violations during foreclosures.Those 24,000 Citigroup borrowers will receive a combined total of approximately $20 million with payments ranging from a few hundred dollars to $62,500 depending on the harm done to the borrower and the type of servicing error that was committed. One news report, citing an OCC spokesperson, stated that Citigroup was originally told by the OCC that it did not have to include those 24,000 borrowers in the settlement. It was discovered that Citigroup owed those 24,000 borrowers money only after one borrower filed a complaint on an OCC Customer Assistance website, which was stated in Waters’ letter and confirmed by the OCC.”As we said in the past, we are fully committed to fulfilling our obligations under the independent foreclosure review,” Citigroup spokesperson Lynn Fogarty said.Earlier this month when it was reported that 24,000 borrowers were still owed money by Citigroup, spokesman Mark Rodgers told DS News that “We want to make sure that everyone eligible for compensation under the agreement receives what they are due.”An Independent Foreclosure Review concluded in January 2013 with 10 mortgage servicers reaching an agreement with the Fed and the OCC to pay a combined total of $8.5 billion to more than 3.8 million homeowners whose homes were in foreclosure in 2009 and 2010. The claims allege that the servicers mishandled loan paperwork and robo-signed documents related to the foreclosures.The settlement totals were later increased to 15 servicers and a total of $10 billion in payments, according to the Fed. Citigroup has made cash payments of about $300 million to more than 350,000 borrowers and spent about $500 million on foreclosure prevention, according to an OCC report. Related Articles Share Save Home / Daily Dose / Lawmaker Calls for Further Examination of Servicers in 2013 Foreclosure Settlement Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago in Daily Dose, Featured, Foreclosure, News Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Previous: Report: Freddie Mac to Sell $1 Billion Worth of Non-Performing Mortgage Loans Next: Judge Tosses Non-Profit’s Lawsuit Against DOJ Over JPMorgan Chase Settlement The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago Subscribelast_img read more


May 31, 2021 0

Seanad to debate Donegal transport links

first_img Previous articleNursing Homes offer empty beds to alleviate hospital crisisNext articleA clear focus and vision for Donegal as Rory Gallagher plans for 2017 admin Man arrested on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences in Derry Gardai continue to investigate Kilmacrennan fire Facebook WhatsApp Pinterest WhatsApp A key debate with Transport Minister Shane Ross on air and road links to Donegal is taking place in the Seanad later today.The debate is set to focus on two key issues – the funding of the A5 and City of Derry Airport.It has been claimed that the Irish Government has not contributed to the running of the airport in Derry since 2011 while they are also being urged to provide more funding for the A5 upgrade.Senator Padraig MacLochlainn says both services are vital in providing a gateway to Donegal, and therefore the Irish Government should be doing more………..Audio Playerhttp://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/padseanad1pm.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. 365 additional cases of Covid-19 in Republic 75 positive cases of Covid confirmed in North Further drop in people receiving PUP in Donegal Facebookcenter_img By admin – November 16, 2016 RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Homepage BannerNews Twitter Seanad to debate Donegal transport links Google+ Main Evening News, Sport and Obituaries Tuesday May 25th Pinterest Twitter Google+last_img read more


May 27, 2021 0

[Breaking] ‘Malice In Law’ : Prashant Bhushan Files Writ Petition In SC Seeking Recall Of Contempt Notice

first_imgTop Stories[Breaking] ‘Malice In Law’ : Prashant Bhushan Files Writ Petition In SC Seeking Recall Of Contempt Notice LIVELAW NEWS NETWORK1 Aug 2020 1:52 AMShare This – xAdvocate Prashant Bhushan has filed a writ petition in the Supreme Court under Article 32 of the Constitution against the Secretary General of the Supreme Court, seeking recall of the contempt notice issued against him on July 22 and also the order passed on July 24 listing the old contempt case taken against him in 2009 for final hearing.The petition states that the complaint filed by…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginAdvocate Prashant Bhushan has filed a writ petition in the Supreme Court under Article 32 of the Constitution against the Secretary General of the Supreme Court, seeking recall of the contempt notice issued against him on July 22 and also the order passed on July 24 listing the old contempt case taken against him in 2009 for final hearing.The petition states that the complaint filed by one Advocate Mahek Maheshwari, which sought contempt action against Bhushan, was defective as it was not accompanied with the sanction of the Attorney General as mandated by Section 15 of the Contempt of Courts Act 1971 and Rule 3(c) of the Rules to Regulate Proceedings for Contempt of the Supreme Court 1975.Therefore, the Secretary-General erred in accepting the defective complaint, and in putting up the same before the judicial side.The plea contends that by taking suo moto cognizance on Maheshwari’s complaint, the SC dispensed with the statutory requirement of taking the consent of the Attorney General or the Solicitor General, and thereby did “indirectly what the Court could not have directly”.Further, it is contended that the Secretary-General committed illegality by placing the complaint directly before the bench headed by Justice Arun Mishra, as the ‘Master of the Roster’ is the Chief Justice of India.”It is therefore submitted that the actions of the Respondent (Secretary-General) amount to a usurpation of the powers of the Hon’ble Chief Justice and are therefore clearly unlawful being contrary to settled law”, states the plea settled by Senior Advocate Dushyant Dave and filed through Advocate Kamini Jaiswal.The petition states that the initiation of contempt proceedings in disregard of the established procedure amounts to violation of the right to personal liberty under Article 21 of the Constitution.”…before a person is deprived of his personal liberty the procedure established by law must be strictly followed and must not be departed from to the disadvantage of the person affected”, the plea quotes from the SC precedent Makhan Singh Torsikka vs State of Punjab (1952 SCR 368).The petition further states that the “sudden listing” of the 11-year old contempt case against him for hearing smacks of “malice in law” on the part of the Respondent.”The sudden appearance of the matter in the cause-list released on 22.07.2020 with merely two days notice is not only inconsistent with the Handbook for Practice and Procedure in  the Supreme Court which mandates giving sufficient advance notice before the proposed date of listing, but also reflects the intention of the Respondent to somehow or other convict the Petitioner for contempt”, the plea adds.Prashant Bhushan @pbhushan1 files writ petition in SC against Secretary General of SC, saying:1 Secretary General erred in accepting the complaint not accompanied with AG’s sanction.2. Complaint could not have been put up before J Arun Mishra, as CJI is master of roster. pic.twitter.com/hBbCXQ495r— Live Law (@LiveLawIndia) August 1, 2020It was on July 22 that the bench headed by Justice Arun Mishra issued contempt notice to Bhushan in a suo moto case taken with respect to two of his tweets on judiciary and the Chief Justice of India.The bench, also including Justices B R Gavai and Krishna Murari, prima facie, observed that his tweets “have brought disrepute to the administration of justice and are capable of undermining the dignity and authority of the Supreme Court in general and the office of the Chief Justice of India in particular, in the eyes of general public”. The case is next listed on August 5.Read the SC order issuing contempt notice to Prashant Bhushan @pbhushan1 taking cognizance of his tweets. The Court said the tweets prima face “brought administration of justice into disrepute and are capable of undermining the dignity and authority of SC and office of CJI” https://t.co/If40NujWjm pic.twitter.com/i6AcgcMTWJ— Live Law (@LiveLawIndia) July 22, 2020On July 24, the bench listed for hearing a contempt case taken against Bhushan in 2009, over his comments against Chief Justices of India in an interview given to “Tehelka” magazine. The bench said, “We need to hear the matter”.In a related development, Bhushan, along with N, Ram (former Managing Director of ‘The Hindu) and Arun Shourie (former Union Minister) filed a writ petition in the SC challenging the offence of ‘scandalizing the court’ under Section 2(c)(i) of the Contempt of Courts Act.Click here to download the petitionNext Storylast_img read more


May 26, 2021 0

Are WhatsApp Chats Admissible In Evidence?

first_imgKnow the LawAre WhatsApp Chats Admissible In Evidence? LiveLaw Research Team15 Jan 2021 9:21 PMShare This – xThe social media is abuzz with the details from alleged Whatsapp chats between Republic TV anchor Arnab Goswami and former BARC CEO Partho Das Gupta. The 500-page long Whatsapp conversations between Goswami and Das Gupta found their way into social media after Mumbai Police annexed it in its supplementary charge filed in the TRP rigging case.In this backdrop, several users raised…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe social media is abuzz with the details from alleged Whatsapp chats between Republic TV anchor Arnab Goswami and former BARC CEO Partho Das Gupta. The 500-page long Whatsapp conversations between Goswami and Das Gupta found their way into social media after Mumbai Police annexed it in its supplementary charge filed in the TRP rigging case.In this backdrop, several users raised questions regarding admissibility of Whatsapp chats as evidence. Let us discuss this issue.The first thing we have to keep in mind is that an “electronic record” is also included in the definition of “evidence” under Section 3 of the Indian Evidence Act. It is treated as ‘documentary evidence’.According to Section 2(1) (t) of the Information Technology Act, an electronic record is “data, record or data generated, image or sound stored, received or sent in an electronic form or micro film or computer generated micro fiche”.The Evidence Act allows giving of evidence in respect of facts in issue and relevant facts. So, an electronic record can be an evidence in a trial if it relates to a fact in issue or a relevant facts of a case.However, there is a catch with respect to electronic records.  The nature of evidence in the case of online conversations like Whatsapp chats will mostly be secondary in nature. In other words, the evidence produced in the court with respect to online chats will be print outs of the backup documents saved in the server or of the screen-shots of the chats, unless the device itself is produced.The normal rule of evidence is that a document must be proved by primary evidence by proving the document itself. Oral evidence about the contents of the documents is barred by the Evidence Act(Section 92). Section 64 of the Evidence Act says that “documents must be proved by primary evidence” except in the circumstances mentioned in Section 65.Proving of documents through secondary evidence(such as certified copies, photocopies etc) is permitted only in exceptional circumstances which are detailed under Section 65 of the Evidence Act. We have already seen how electronic records as regarded as documents under the Evidence Act).Realizing the advent of information technology, the legislature incorporated a special provision in 2000 to admit electronic evidence in secondary form – Section 65B.Section 65B says that any information contained in an electronic record which is : printed on a paper(such as print outs) , stored, recorded or copied in optical or magnetic data produced by a computer(such as CDs, DVDs)will be deemed to be a document. But for such records to be admissible as evidence, the certain conditions have to be fulfilled.Such conditions are :the computer that produced it must have been used regularly at the time of production of such electronic documents; the kind of information contained in the computer must be such that it is regularly and normally supplied to the electronic device; the computer should be in proper condition and must work properly at time of creation of electronic record; and, the duplicate copy must be a reproduction of the original electronic record.To admit the electronic record as evidence, it must be accompanied with a certificate from a person who produced the copy certifying that the same fulfills the above-said four conditions. Section 65B(4) speaks of this certificate.There was a judicial confusion as to whether Section 65B(4) was a mandatory condition. Last year, a 3-judge bench of the Supreme Court settled conflicting decisions on the point to authoritatively rule that at Certificate under Section 65B is a condition precedent to the admissibility of evidence by way of electronic record(Arjun Pandit Rao v. Kailash Kushanrao)The Supreme Court also stated that Section 65B (1) differentiates between:(i) ‘original document’ – which is the original electronic record contained in the computer in which the original information is first stored; and (ii) the computer output containing such information, which then may be treated as evidence of the contents of the ‘original document’. The Supreme Court clarified that Certificate is not necessary if the ‘original document’ itself is produced (as a primary evidence). This can be done by the owner of a laptop computer, computer tablet or even a mobile phone, by stepping into the witness box and proving that the concerned device, on which the original information is first stored, is owned and/or operated by him. However, in all other cases, proof of such electronic record can be through in accordance with Section 65B (1) together with production of the requisite Certificate under Section 65B (4) of the Act.The judgment authored by Justice RF Nariman stated :”Section 65B(1) clearly differentiates between the”original” document – which would be the original “electronic record”contained in the “computer” in which the original information is first stored -and the computer output containing such information, which then may be treated as evidence of the contents of the “original” document. All this necessarily shows that Section 65B differentiates between the original information contained in the “computer” itself and copies made therefrom –the former being primary evidence, and the latter being secondary evidence.Quite obviously, the requisite certificate in sub-section (4) is unnecessary if the original document itself is produced. This can be done by the owner of a laptop computer, a computer tablet or even a mobile phone, by stepping into the witness box and proving that the concerned device, on which the original information is first stored, is owned and/or operated by him. In cases where “the computer”, as defined, happens to be a part of a “computer system” or “computer network” (as defined in the Information Technology Act, 2000) and it becomes impossible to physically bring such network or system to the Court, then the only means of proving information contained in such electronic record can be in accordance with Section 65B(1), together with the requisite certificate under Section 65B(4).This being the case, it is necessary to clarify what is contained in the last sentence in paragraph 24 of Anvar P.V. (supra) which reads as “…if an electronic record as such is used as primary evidence under Section 62 of the Evidence Act…”. This may more appropriately be read without the words “under Section 62 of the Evidence Act,…”.DecisionsThere are certain decisions which have observed that Whatsapp chats can be admitted in evidence provided they fulfill the conditions under Section 65B of the Evidence Act.In Ambalal Sarabhai Enterprise Ltd v KS Infraspace LLP Limited and Another, the Supreme Court, while hearing a petition challenging an injunction order, made a reference to the Whatsapp chats produced as evidence in the case.”The WhatsApp messages which are virtual verbal communications are matters of evidence with regard to their meaning and its contents to be proved during trial by evidence – in – chief and cross examination. The e – mails and WhatsApp messages will have to be read and understood cumulatively to decipher whether there was a concluded contract or not”, the Court observed in the judgment delivered on January 6, 2020.This means that the Whatsapp chats can be admitted to evidence in trial.In a recent case, the Punjab and Haryana High Court, while deciding a bail application in an NDPS case, granted liberty to the Narcotics Control Bureau to rely upon the Whatsapp messages of the accused after due compliance of provisions of Section 65-B of the Indian Evidence(Rakesh Kumar Singla vs Union Of India).There is a recent order of the Gujarat High Court as well, which referred to Whatsapp conversations to form a prima facie opinion regarding grant of bail(Chirag Dipakbhai Sulekha vs State Of Gujarat)There is an instance of a Commercial Court in Delhi relying on Whatsapp chats, which were proved in accordance with Section 65B, to decree a suit. There are reports of family court lawyers increasingly relying on Whatsapp chats as evidence in divorce cases.Whatsapp Forward without original cannot be evidenceThe Delhi High Court in a case has held that a Whatsapp forward message, without an unknown source, cannot be treated as evidence(National Lawyers Campaign for Judicial Transparency and Reforms v Union of India). The Court held that such a forwarded message, without its original, cannot be regarded as ‘document’ under the Evidence Act.”What they believe to be information is a post circulated on WhatsApp platform or an alleged translation in a website. The alleged information is not claimed to be true to their knowledge. It is not even stated in the petition as to how the petitioners have formed a reasonable belief that the alleged post or the translation could be true or have any basis”.Annexure – A(Whatsapp forward) does not even qualify as a document in terms of the Evidence Act, 1872, in as much as, neither the original nor the copy of the original has been produced. It is an admitted position that the petitioners have not seen original and have had no occasion to even compare Annexure – A with the original”, a bench of Justice Sanjeev Sachdeva observed in the case.There are cases where courts have treated the “blue tick” in Whatsapp as proof of service of summons.The upshot of the discussion is that law does not bar receiving Whatsapp chats as evidence, provided it complies with the requirements of electronic evidence under Section 65B of the Evidence Act..Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. 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May 26, 2021 0

Work to begin on delivering free public WiFi hotspots in Donegal

first_imgHomepage BannerNews Work to begin on delivering free public WiFi hotspots in Donegal Nine til Noon Show – Listen back to Monday’s Programme A programme to provide free public WiFi hotspots in a number of smaller towns in Donegal is progressing, with work on connections starting in the coming weeks.€30,000 will be invested in each Municipal District. This week, members in Inishowen were briefed on what’s happening there.WiFi4EU is an EU sponsored initiative to create free public WiFi, municipalities across Europe had the opportunity to apply for a max of 4 Vouchers to the value of €60,000.Donegal County Council applied for and succeeded in obtaining four vouchers, with the Department of Rural & Community Development providing matching funds.The council is investing an additional €30,000, giving a total budget €150,000.The council intends installing a total of 75 outdoor public WiFI access points throughout County Donegal, creating centres of public connectivity.The selected towns in the Inishowen MD are Ballyliffin, Burnfoot, Buncrana, Carrigans, Greencastle, Malin, Manorcunningham, Moville, Muff, Newtowncunningham.Sord Data Systems Ltd have been appointed as project contractors, and they are now making contact with businesses to agree host locations on a phased basis.A Social Media campaign to publicise the locations will start shortly, as will the installation and connection of equipment. Previous articleWinds set to reach 100 km/h as Storm Dennis arrivesNext articleSinn Fein TD believes another election is a real possibility News Highland Facebook Pinterest DL Debate – 24/05/21 Loganair’s new Derry – Liverpool air service takes off from CODA Google+ News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th Twittercenter_img By News Highland – February 15, 2020 Facebook WhatsApp Arranmore progress and potential flagged as population grows Twitter WhatsApp Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic Pinterest RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Google+last_img read more


May 25, 2021 0